Muammar Qaddafi
Termin Muammar Qaddafi jest wymieniony w angielskojęzycznej Wikipedii. W tamtej wersji językowej występuje pod nazwą:

Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi (/ˈmoʊ.əmɑr ɡəˈdɑːfi/; Arabic: معمر محمد أبو منيار القذافي‎ (help·info)) (c. 1942 – 20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary and politician, and the de facto ruler of Libya for 42 years. Taking power at the age of 27 in a 1969 coup d'etat, he ruled as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then as the "Brother Leader" of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011, when he was ousted in the Libyan civil war. After beginning as an Arab nationalist and Arab socialist, he later governed the country according to his own ideology, the Third International Theory. He eventually embraced Pan-Africanism, and served as Chairperson of the African Union from 2009 to 2010.
The son of an impoverished Bedouin goatherder, Gaddafi became involved in politics while at school in Sabha, subsequently enrolling in the Royal Military Academy, Benghazi. Founding a revolutionary cell within the military, in 1969 they seized power from King Idris in a bloodless coup. Becoming Chairman of the governing Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), he dissolved the monarchy and proclaimed the Republic. Ruling by decree, he implemented measures to remove what he viewed as foreign imperialist influence from Libya, and strengthened ties to Arab nationalist governments. Intent on pushing Libya toward "Islamic socialism", he introduced sharia as the basis for the legal system and nationalized the oil industry, using the increased revenues to bolster the military, implement social programs and fund revolutionary militants across the world. In 1973 he initiated a "Popular Revolution" with the formation of General People's Committees (GPCs), a system of direct democracy, but retained personal control over major decisions. He outlined his Third International Theory that year, publishing these ideas in The Green Book.
In 1977, he dissolved the Republic and created the Jamahiriya, a "state of the masses" part-governed by GPCs. Officially adopting a symbolic role in governance, he retained power as military commander-in-chief and head of the Revolutionary Committees responsible for policing and suppressing opponents. Overseeing unsuccessful border conflicts with Egypt and Chad, Gaddafi's support for foreign militants and alleged responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing led to Libya's label of "international pariah". A particularly hostile relationship developed with the United States and United Kingdom, resulting in the 1986 U.S. bombing of Libya and United Nations-imposed economic sanctions. From 1999, Gaddafi encouraged economic privatization, pan-African integration, and sought better relations with the West. In 2011, an anti-Gaddafist uprising led by the National Transitional Council (NTC) broke out, resulting in civil war. NATO intervened militarily on the side of the NTC, resulting in the government's downfall. Retreating to Sirte, Gaddafi was captured and killed by NTC militants.
Gaddafi was a controversial and highly divisive world figure. Supporters lauded his anti-imperialist stance and his support for pan-Africanism and pan-Arabism, and he was decorated with various awards. Conversely, he was internationally condemned as a dictator and autocrat whose authoritarian administration violated the human rights of Libyan citizens and supported international terrorism.

Jest to fragment artykułu Muammar Qaddafi z darmowej encyklopedii Wikipedia. Na Wikipedii dostępna jest lista autorów.
Na pl.wikipedia.org artykuł Muammar Qaddafi był wyświetlany 104 razy w ciągu ostatnich 30 dni. (Stan z dnia: 17.03.2014)
Zdjęcia dotyczące Muammar Qaddafi
Miniatura:
Oryginał:
Wyniki wyszukiwania na Google i Bing
1
>30
1
Muammar Gaddafi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Muammar Gaddafi was born in a tent near Qasr Abu Hadi, a rural area outside the town of Sirte in the deserts of western Libya. His family came from a small, ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muammar_Gaddafi
2
>30
2
Muammar Qaddafi News - Bloomberg
Breaking news about Muammar Qaddafi. Find the latest articles, videos, photos and blogs about Muammar Qaddafi.
topics.bloomberg.com/muammar-qaddafi/
3
>30
3
Muammar al-Qaddafi (Libyan statesman) -- Encyclopedia Britannica
Muammar al-Qaddafi, also spelled Muammar Khadafy, Moammar Gadhafi, or Muʿammar al-Qadhdhāfī (born 1942, near Surt, Libya—died October 20, 2011, ...
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/485369/Muammar-al-Qaddafi
4
>30
4
Muammar el-Qaddafi, Libyan Dictator, Is Dead at 69 - NYTimes.com
20 Oct 2011 ... Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi, the erratic, provocative dictator who ruled Libya for 42 years, crushing opponents at home while cultivating the ...
www.nytimes.com/2011/10/21/world/africa/qaddafi-killed-as-hometown-falls-to-libyan-rebels.html
5
>30
5
Muammar el-Qaddafi - The New York Times
20 Oct 2011 ... Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi was killed Thursday as fighters battling the vestiges of his fallen regime took control of his hometown of Surt after a ...
www.nytimes.com/2011/10/21/world/africa/qaddafi-is-killed-as-libyan-forces-take-surt.html?pagewanted=all
6
>30
6
Profile: Muammar Gaddafi - In Depth - Al Jazeera English
22 Aug 2011 ... Libya's Colonel Muammar Gaddafi has been Africa's and the Arab world's longest-ruling, most erratic, most grimly fascinating leader - presiding ...
www.aljazeera.com/indepth/2011/02/201122117565923629.html
7
>30
7
Muammar Qaddafi News and Video - FOX News Topics - FOXNews ...
Muammar Qaddafi was the autocratic ruler of Libya, from 1969 when he seized power in a military coup, until 2011 when his government was overthrown by a ...
www.foxnews.com/topics/world/muammar-gaddafi.htm
8
>30
8
Muammar Qaddafi's Death and Legacy : The New Yorker
7 Nov 2011 ... During the long uprising in Libya, I toured the wreckage of Muammar Qaddafi's forty-two years in power. There were the usual trappings of ...
www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/11/07/111107fa_fact_anderson?currentPage=all
9
>30
9
Niger extradites Muammar Qaddafi's son, Libyan government says ...
6 Mar 2014 ... FILE - In this undated file photo made available on Sunday Sept. 25, 2011, al- Saadi Gadhafi, son of the late Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi, ...
www.foxnews.com/world/2014/03/06/niger-extradites-muammar-qaddafi-son-libyan-government-says/
10
>30
10
Muammar Gaddafi Biography (Political Leader) | Infoplease.com
Muammar Gaddafi ruled Libya as the African country's dictator for more than four decades before he was overthrown and killed in 2011. Born a Bedouin ...
www.infoplease.com/biography/var/muammargaddafi.html
Wyniki wyszukiwania dla "Muammar Qaddafi"
Google: ok. 988.000
Muammar Qaddafi w nauce
Mu'ammar al-Kaddafi – Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia
Muammar al-Gaddafi at the AU summit.jpg ... W 1963 roku, po roku studiów historycznych, porzucił Uniwersytet Libijski w Bengazi, a dwa lata później ukończył ...
Muammar al-Kaddafi – Wikicytaty
Muammar al-Kaddafi (1942–2011) – libijski wojskowy i polityk. .... jak na uniwersytecie studenci wykonywali wyroki śmierci na jego [Kaddafiego] przeciwnikach ...
Ofiary Kaddafiego przerywają milczenie | Tygodnik "Przegląd"
Jednak przy okazji wizyty na uniwersytecie Kaddafi położył rękę na jej głowie… ... Ostatecznie podsumował: „Można opisać Muammara Kaddafiego jako osobę ...
Muammar al-Kaddafi – Nonsensopedia, polska encyklopedia humoru
Oblicze Wodza Muammar al-Kaddafi (wł. ... Chmielnickiego I klasy (Ukraina) i doktorat honoris causa białoruskiego Uniwersytetu Informatyki i Radioelektroniki.
Ludzie Wprost - Muammar Kadafi
Muammar Kadafi - libijski przywódca, najdłużej rządzącym państwem arabskim lider (kierował ... Dla kariery wojskowej porzucił geografię na uniwersytecie.
Muammar al-Kaddafi - Fakt.pl
W 1963, po roku studiów historycznych, porzucił Uniwersytet Libijski, w 1965 ukończył zaś ... W ataku na konwój, którym jechał Muammar Kaddafi, uczestniczył ...
Goldman Sachs obalił reżim Muammara Kaddafiego w Libii ...
4 Lut 2014 ... Po 42 latach ucisku dyktatorskich rządów Muammara Kaddafiego, ... banku, wśród których wielu to absolwenci Uniwersytetu Harvarda. W 2003 ...
Libia.pl - Muammar al-Kaddafi - sylwetka przywódcy Libii
Muammar al-Kaddafi urodził się 13 września 1942 w Syrcie w Libii. Image ... W 1963 ukończył Uniwersytet Libijski, w 1965 Akademię Wojskową w Bengazi.
Muammar Kaddafi II Profiles | Facebook
View the profiles of people named Muammar Kaddafi II on Facebook. ... Filialleiter at SYF DealerStudied at Uniwersytet Mikołaja kopernika w toruniu Lives in ...
Książki na temat Muammar Qaddafi
Muammar al-Qaddafi's Libya (Revised Edition)
Muammar al-Qaddafi's Libya (Revised Edition)
Kimberly L. Sullivan, 2012
Kimberly L. Sullivan. 57 67 67 68 73–74 74 83 83 84 85–86 91 97 99 100 105 106 108–109 110 seleCted bibliography Arnold, Guy. “Libya: Foreign. Eljahmi, 15. Muammar Gaddafi, The Green Book: The Social Basis, 35. Ibid., 30. Gaddafi ...
Escape to hell and other stories
Escape to hell and other stories
Muammar Qaddafi, 1998
A collection of short stories including "The City," "The Suicide of the Astronaut," and "Prayer on the Last Friday", and four essays
The making of a pariah state: the adventurist politics of ...
The making of a pariah state: the adventurist politics of ...
Martin Sicker, 1987
The Making of a Pariah State takes the reader behind the flamboyance and apparent irrationality of Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi to expose his attempt to impose national cohesion on the Arab, Muslim, and Third World elements under his ...
My vision
My vision
Muammar Qaddafi, Edmond Jouve, Angela Parfitt, 2005
How is this reversal explained? Born from conversations between Gaddafi and political expert Edmond Jouve, this book retraces the Libyan leader's political and ideological journey.
Rozwój zapytań na Google


Wpisy na blogach na temat
Muammar Qaddafi
Libya S.O.S. - war diary 2011/12: MUAMMAR AL GADDAFI IS STILL LEADING LIBYAN RESISTANCE [20. October 2011.]
Libya, An error does not become truth by reason of multiplied propagation, nor does truth become error because nobody sees it. Mahatma Gandhi
libyasos.blogspot.com/2011/10/muammar-al-gaddafi-is-alive.html
Amazon.com: Muammar Qaddafi: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle
Visit Amazon.com's Muammar Qaddafi Page and shop for all Muammar Qaddafi books and other Muammar Qaddafi related products (DVD, CDs, Apparel). Check out pictures, bibliography, biography and community discussions about Muammar Qaddafi
www.amazon.com/Muammar-Qaddafi/e/B001JWN6FO
Muammar Gaddafi is dead, NTC says - Thursday 20 October 2011 | World news | theguardian.com
• Libyan PM confirms death of former dictator • Pictures and video show body in the streets< • Final pro-Gaddafi stronghold Sirte falls to NTC
www.theguardian.com/world/middle-east-live/2011/oct/20/syria-libya-middle-east-unrest-live
Muammar Qaddafi News - Bloomberg
Breaking news about Muammar Qaddafi. Find the latest articles, videos, photos and blogs about Muammar Qaddafi.
topics.bloomberg.com/muammar-qaddafi/
Muammar Gaddafi: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News
Big News on Muammar Gaddafi. Includes blogs, news, and community conversations about Muammar Gaddafi.
www.huffingtonpost.com/news/muammar-gaddafi/
President Obama's Remarks on the Death of Muammar el-Qaddafi | The White House
President Obama spoke from the Rose Garden
www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2011/10/20/president-obamas-remarks-death-muammar-el-qaddafi
Updates on the Death of Muammar el-Qaddafi - NYTimes.com
The Lede is following developments in Libya on Thursday, where the interim government has announced the capture of the city of Surt, Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi’s hometown.
thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/20/latest-updates-on-the-search-for-qaddafi/
Witnessing the Death of Muammar Qaddafi : The New Yorker
The conversation about the images of Qaddafi’s body so far has mainly been about whether they should or shouldn’t have been shown—but that’s a reductive conversation. The more interesting issue is how they were shown—and what the effects were....
www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/newsdesk/2011/10/witnessing-the-death-of-muammar-qaddafi.html
Muammar Qaddafi | Economist - World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance
The Economist offers authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
www.economist.com/topics/muammar-qaddafi
123